Thursday, 3 August 2017

Building science tabulating skills with Stage 3 Australian Curriculum's Built Environment topic

Tabulating data on built environment-

Here is one idea for incorporating science skills in a primary lesson (stage 3) using the Built Environment part of the syllabus to demonstrate.





Turning this information into data drawn on a table. Skills to look for:

Having headings, having units in the correct place, correctly read off the graph are all important skills.



As students will be using the scale to estimate height, you may also wish to compare their estimates with correct values:

Wednesday, 1 March 2017

Energy and orange peel experiment


Recently I was doing some experiments centered around oranges. One that my students really liked was squeezing orange oils into a flame. They were able to get a good burst of energy, as the oils burn.

Even though they tried really hard, they couldn't get the skin to burn, even in a Bunsen burner flame.
Also, they didn't manage to get each other in the eyes with the oil, although I would use google just to be same.
This experiment could be used as a starer to alternative energy sources or just to "spark" a discussion about energy, combustion or chemical changes.

Saturday, 18 February 2017

Ideas for primary science- chocolate crackles, popcorn, crickets

Here is the presentation I did yesterday for the STANSW Annual Conference:
I had the best fun and learnt lots!!
Here is the powerpoint

I used chocolate crackles to discuss aspects of the syllabus from K-6 NSW Science and Technology for the Australian curriculum, as well as some other ideas such as buying crickets from the pet store to use in the classroom, growing popcorn etc. Check out the powerpoint and if you have any questions, message me!

Sunday, 1 January 2017

Fun way to use a chemical reaction- glove experiment


This is the result of a fun experiment that I discovered team teaching.

Using a normal bottle, vinegar and bicard the classic experiment takes on a fun twist.

The carbon dioxide was  put into the glove here is the result.




Knowing how difficult it can be for primary teachers to access science gear, I thought I would share it with you.

Saturday, 5 December 2015

Christmas themed science based activities for primary /juniors

I just thought I touch base with a few Christmas themed science ideas I came across;
1. How long does a candy cane take to dissolve in various liquids?
2. Engineering with lollies ; http://www.ehow.com/ehow-mom/blog/help-kids-build-some-sweet-math-skills/
as an extra challenge give a limited number of toothpicks and lollies and ask students to make the tallest tower. measure in millimetres to be accurate, tabulate results.
3. Candy cane shaped crystals http://littlebinsforlittlehands.com/christmas-crystal-candy-canes-science-activity/
or 4. snow flakes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PlYL4_cgCTU
5. make fake snow https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pM2OQzl4gnM (its the same chemical as in a nappy)
Marianne

Monday, 20 July 2015

Science programs - stage 3 sci


Primary science for teachers | Stage 3 | 2014

This course links stage 3 with stage 4, as taught at Cronulla HS, implementing the NSW science and technology syllabus for the Australian Curriculum.

Primary science

Term 1 - 10 weeks 3 days
 
Week1
Week2
Week3
Week4
Week5
Week6
Week7
Week8
Week9
Week10
Week 11
(Only 3 days)
 
 
 
ST3‑1VA, ST3‑2VA, ST3‑3VA, ST3‑5WT, ST3‑4WS
ST3‑4WS, ST3‑5WT, ST3‑6PW, ST3‑7PW, ST3‑15I
intro to working scientifically stage #
Build a toy and then other simple experiments to do science
 
Physical world- activities
This introduces a study of electricity and light, with some important vocabulary used.

 

Term 2 - 8 weeks 4 days
 
Week1
Week2
Week3
Week4
Week5
Week6
Week7
Week8
Week 9
(Only 4 days)
 
 
 
ST3‑10LW, ST3‑11LW, ST3‑14BE, ST3‑4WS
ST3‑1VA, ST3‑2VA, ST3‑4WS, ST3‑5WT
This unit looks at the features that living things have that help them survive. This leads to adaptation in stage 4 and evolution in stage 5.
experiments focus on native plants and birds typical of the local Cronulla areas
Using technology to study science

 

Term 3 - 9 weeks 4 days
 
Week1
Week2
Week3
Week4
Week5
Week6
Week7
Week8
Week9
Week 10
(Only 4 days)
 
 
 
ST3‑12MW, ST3‑13MW, ST3‑4WS, ST3‑5WT, ST3‑16P
ST3‑4WS, ST3‑15I
This unit leads to high school chemistry, by looking  at changes (physical and chemical  reactions)
Looks at the benefits of working in groups

 

Term 4 - 10 weeks 2 days
 
Week1
Week2
Week3
Week4
Week5
Week6
Week7
Week8
Week9
Week10
Week 11
(Only 2 days)
 
 
 
ST3‑8ES, ST3‑9ES
ST3‑4WS
This unit leads directly to year 7 study of the solar system as well as natural disasters in HSIE and later years in science.
 

Primary science

working scientifically 1- scales  |  Stage 3  |  Science

 

Summary
Duration
intro to working scientifically stage #
Build a toy and then other simple experiments to do science
 
Term 1
2 weeks 3 days

 

Unit overview
Vocabulary
By building a toy students have the ability to create a device that meets criteria and then test the design in a scientific investigation
Choose one or more other investigations to demonstrate your skills, while also using scales on equipments such as thermometers, measuring tapes, compasses, and using free apps to measure sound, sound waves and angles.
science technology question sustainable global design equipment material solution testable prediction data evidence conclusion explanations
Outcomes
Assessment overview
Science K‑10
  ST3‑1VA shows interest in and enthusiasm for science and technology, responding to their curiosity, questions and perceived needs, wants and opportunities
  ST3‑2VA demonstrates a willingness to engage responsibly with local, national and global issues relevant to their lives, and to shaping sustainable futures
  ST3‑3VA develops informed attitudes about the current and future use and influence of science and technology based on reason
  ST3‑5WT plans and implements a design process, selecting a range of tools, equipment, materials and techniques to produce solutions that address the design criteria and identified constraints
  ST3‑4WS investigates by posing questions, including testable questions, making predictions and gathering data to draw evidence-based conclusions and develop explanations
 

 

Content
Teaching, learning and assessment
Resources
Stage 3 - Working Technologically
Students explore and define a task by:
§ exploring needs for, or opportunities to undertake, the task
§ identifying the users' needs and wants using techniques, eg observations, surveys, interviews and market research
§ developing a design brief individually and in collaboration with others
§ developing design criteria that considers, where relevant, function, aesthetics, social and environmental considerations  
§ planning the process considering constraints where relevant, eg time, finance, resources and expertise
Stage 3 - Working Scientifically
Students plan investigations by:
§ with guidance, planning appropriate investigation methods to test predictions, answer questions or solve problems including surveys, fieldwork, research and fair tests (ACSIS086, ACSIS103, ACSHE081, ACSHE098)
Students conduct investigations by:
, ACSIS107)    
§ using a variety of ways to honestly and accurately communicate ideas, explanations and processes, including multi-modal texts, labelled diagrams, as well as written and oral factual texts as appropriate (ACSIS093, ACSIS110)    
Build a toy that moves down a ramp from found items such as bottle lids, bottles, cds, and old boxes.
Students should collect together materials ensuring that everything is genuinely recycled ( not bought)
They should sketch their idea them build it. Students should modify their ideas.
Students should judge each toy to decide which one was the best in terms of criteria ie function colour, aesthetics, social and environmental considerations and built free.
Students could use technology to make a power ppt using photos of materials and how they became their toy. Using auto slide, they can make the slide show move like an animation.
They may also do a "show and tell" style presentation.
The design process is an opportunity to do testing, as it needs to be able to move. However, at this stage the design is to be creative.
 
Students then evaluate the toy for which toy will go the furthest from the top of a ramp. Build a ramp or use one in the playground 
To do this, they need to set up a fair test.
Ie same ramp, it starts line, no motor, no pushing etc.
a ramp can be made by sloping a wooden board, such as a cupboard door ( easy to find- look at council collections) 
Measure using a long measuring tape, such as for long jump.
Perhaps designs a way to ensure all toys start at the same time, like a string to stop them rolling until the start.
In addition, other designs which have more power see resources.
Other experiments to test:
Your neck diameter is twice your waist diameter.
your foot length is always the same proportion to your height ( ie height /foot length is the same for everyone)
Temperature; the temperature on the grass will be less than on cement on the same sunny day.
Some technology will effect a magnet
The sound of a whistle travels better with wind than against the wind
The louder you blow the louder the whistle
Blu tack will hold more weight when on a dull surface than a shiny surface. 
In stage 4 students will learn the words, independent, dependent and constant variable
To help use remember the relationship;
Cows Moos Softly in Deep Clover:
C = change
M= measure
S= same
I= independent variable = changed variable
D= dependent= measured variable
C= constant variables = variables kept the same
The Phrase Cows Moos Softly gives students 3 letters to guide them to set up an investigation that gives a fair test.
The mouse trap car is a similar design, but if you start it on a ramp, you don't need to mouse trap
Balloon cars:
Scales can be bought cheaply from eBay or reject shops. 4 in 1 mini thermometer whistle, compass, magnifier $1 eBay, retractable tape $1 eBay, spring balance $2 eBay. Also lots of apps that measure loud, angles, change sound into waves
Get students to research or report a hypothesis about parts of body
do this a demonstration and ask students to prove that they are infect the same size, so students should suggest that a ruler would allow you to get true (accurate ) results
 
 
 
 
sewer's tape measure
tape meter or meter rulers
cheap thermometers
 
 
Cheap ebay compass
 
 
 
Weights eg 5 cent pieces
Stage 3 - Working Technologically
Students generate and develop ideas by:
§ selecting and using creative thinking techniques, including mind-mapping, brainstorming, sketching and modelling
§ selecting and using research techniques appropriate to the task
§
§ applying established criteria to evaluate and modify ideas
Students produce solutions by:

Students to create a portfolio to show design process and to evaluate toy as per syllabus
also watch this experiment to make predictions and perhaps test conclusions
 In portfolio, students analyse their design according to syllabus criteria,
Perhaps have a judging day so students can peer assess!
 
 
 
 
 A scrap book for each student for design process and student reflection
 
Found items to allow students to create design
Stage 3 - Working Scientifically
Students process and analyse data and information by:
§ constructing and using a range of representations, including tables, graphs (column, picture, line and divided bar graphs) and labelled diagrams  
§ using numerical techniques to analyse data and information, including calculating the means and percentages of small sets of data
(ACSIS218, ACSIS221, ACSHE081, ACSHE098)

students to use data on how well the toy moves eg down a ramp in the school playground
Students collect data about which toy moved the farthest. students may wish to conduct tests over a number of days therefore the angle of table needs to be kept and the surface the toys travel onto the same eg cant test some on lino and some on carpet
students to tabulate data and analysis using graphs etc
Students may wish to modify design after testing to improve movement.
 
 
Make a prediction eg my car will take 20 seconds to go down the ramp. Test to compare to prediction. Note a prediction is a specific educated guess, usually with a specific outcome
Discuss their results.


 
 

 


 

Enter your own title
Evaluation
 
 

 

physical world  |  Stage 3

 

Summary
Duration
Physical world- activities
This introduces a study of electricity and light, with some important vocabulary used.
Term 1
8 weeks

 

Unit overview
Vocabulary
 
source of energy, transfer, transform, transformation, electricity, light, information and communication technology, risk, safety, circuit, device, simple circuit, switch, globe, heat, sound, movement, generate, reflection, refraction, scattering, opaque, translucent, shadow, absorb

 

Outcomes
Assessment overview
Science K‑10
  ST3‑4WS investigates by posing questions, including testable questions, making predictions and gathering data to draw evidence-based conclusions and develop explanations
  ST3‑5WT plans and implements a design process, selecting a range of tools, equipment, materials and techniques to produce solutions that address the design criteria and identified constraints
  ST3‑6PW describes how scientific understanding about the sources, transfer and transformation of electricity is related to making decisions about its use
  ST3‑7PW uses scientific knowledge about the transfer of light to solve problems that directly affect people’s lives
  ST3‑15I describes how social influences impact on the design and use of information and communication systems
Stage 4; forces of magnetism, friction and gravity will be investigated and the components and scientific drawing of electrical circuit will be introduced.

 

Content
Teaching, learning and assessment
Resources
Stage 3 - Physical World
Electrical circuits provide a means of transferring and transforming electricity. (ACSSU097)
Students:
§ identify potential risks and demonstrate safe use when using electrical circuits and devices 
§ demonstrate the need for a circuit to be complete to allow the transfer (flow) of electricity
§ construct simple circuits incorporating devices, eg switches and light globes
§ observe and describe how some devices transform (change) electricity to heat energy, light, sound or movement, eg hair dryers, light globes, bells and fans  
Stage 3 - Working Scientifically
Students question and predict by:
§ with guidance, posing questions to clarify practical problems or inform a scientific investigation (ACSIS231, ACSIS232)
§ predicting what the findings of an investigation might be (ACSIS231, ACSIS232)
§ applying experience from similar situations in the past to predict what might happen in a new situation
Students conduct investigations by:
§ using suitable equipment and materials, checking observations and measurements by repeating them where appropriate
Students plan investigations by:
§ deciding which variable should be changed and measured in fair tests while keeping everything else the same (ACSIS087, ACSIS104)
Transferring electricity
Students to be shown a video on electrical safety followed by opportunities for students to share their knowledge of electrical safety ie never put metal in house hold PowerPoint etc
Students to demonstrate that the light will only come on when battery is connected to light wire. They can experiment to make light go on and off ie completing the circuit.
Option- watch video about how to model a light globe, light sabre. Note that electrical energy changes into light
Watch video about human circuit to write a procedure and concluded about how this experiment works.
Students model a complete circuit by walking an obstacle course one after the other, in a circle (circuit). Note that if something stops one student the other student stop, so "no current"
teacher to say there are some broken globes or flat batteries
student to relate some safety risks and how to control them eg only use batteries, don't attach batteries together, don't through anything broken in the bin
Students to identify which globes are broken or batteries flat (you may deliberately or accidently have some in there to add to problem solving).
Students to write down a conclusion in third person 
The battery was flat because the globe did not work with it but worked 10 times with other batteries.
Students to suggest other times when something doesn't work that either there is no power or the item itself is broken.
to make a table about the type of materials that allow electricity to be transferred ( moved)
Teacher to state that often the item is broken because there is a break in the circuit ie globe wire is burnt out, a connection has broken due to item being dropped or internally damaged.
Teacher to ask would you throw away your TV if it didn't work once? Teacher to lead students to conclude that we test an item several times to test ideas. This is an important idea in science- that a discovery is tested many times before science concludes it's correct. Would you take medicine that only worked once?
Students to identify when testing a light globe which variable is changed (power source), which one is measure (if it comes on) and what is kept the same eg globe being tested.
Teacher to deliberately cheat on a test of a globe eg who told me this globe was broken. Teacher then makes an obvious swap for a working globe "see its working!"
Teacher to relate a fair test to not cheating within an experiment.
Teacher may wish to expand on this idea further by watching YouTube videos where globes appear to work without an electrical system eg uncle fester from the adamm's family.
Discuss- how did they do this trick??
Energy is neither created nor destroyed only changed. Therefore when you see energy " run out' it's really been changed. 
Transformation of electricity
Students are to being in various toys to observe the energy they start with eg electricity and then energy they have later eg moving energy, sound. 
Note - energy is often turned into sound and heat and so energy "runs out" because it has changed into energy that wasn't the purpose of the device.
Student to tabulate electrical items and all the energy they make. Students should observe that many items make heat without heat being the purpose; therefore, energy is changed into a form the user didn't intend.
Students may also draw a person and relate chemical energy going in and all the kinds of energy our body produces, to explain why we need to regularly eat. 
 Students may wish to research amount of energy spent asleep to show that even when not doing much work we need energy
aa batteries, old insulated wires - eg from old TV cables, LED light globes eg from old Christmas tree lights, electrical tape or masking tape
Electricity is a line of electrons moving a long a wire. A battery pushes the electrons along. Metals a best to use for wire since there electrons move easily.
Electricity can only flow if there is a complete path from the battery. A break in the path means the electrical flow (current) will stop.
 
make your own light sabre
toys such as electrical, solar, push toys, jack in the box etc
Lots of $2 solar toys on eBay that make movement or sound energy
Using toys: some higher level language but good examples
Energy transfer in toys: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n44K8Irpgpw&index=18&list=PLNNCUNuTXfdEIeuE-uGoP19-Z7zET07XJ     terms stage 4 level, but good examples
In year 7 energy transformations are shown with an arrow
eg kettle electrify -->heat
globe electricity -->light
      and electricity   --> heat
 
 
 
 
Websites on fair test.
Stage 3 - Physical World
Energy from a variety of sources can be used to generate electricity and this knowledge can inform personal and community-based decisions about using these sources sustainably. (ACSSU219)
Students:
§ research and present ideas about the different ways electricity can be generated, eg burning coal or natural gas; solar, hydroelectric, geothermal, wind and wave-generated electricity
§ describe how scientific knowledge can be used to inform personal and community decisions about the use and conservation of sustainable sources of energy (ACSHE217, ACSHE220)    
Stage 3 - Working Scientifically
Students plan investigations by:
§ with guidance, planning appropriate investigation methods to test predictions, answer questions or solve problems including surveys, fieldwork, research and fair tests (ACSIS086, ACSIS103, ACSHE081, ACSHE098)
§ collaboratively and individually selecting suitable methods for gathering data and information first-hand and from reliable secondary sources   
teacher to demonstrate one or many ways that electrical energy is made
solar toy/ calculator- note the wires so its electrical
teacher to demonstrate where electrical energy is made by movement eg a friction light on a bike, or hand powered radio or torch. You may use a YouTube video show one such product.
Note the human movement energy is changed into electrical energy.
In a power station, the burning coal (or nuclear reaction in the case of the Simpson's) makes steam, which moves a turbine within magnet (otherwise known as a motor). The movement then generates electricity.
Students to discuss how else you could move a turbine.
Teacher to guide them by asking what else moves with a lot of energy eg wind, volcano, waves
 Relate ways wind mill, heat from the earth, waves to making electricity without making steam via burning of coal or use of uranium.
Students to then research in groups, to make a poster of a  flow chart showing how one alternate moving energy source eg wind
Students to state why their energy source is better than the burning of coal ie it is not sustainable, pollutes, danger of coal mining etc.
Students to relate how energy is supplied away from mains power eg from camping experience- manual work, solar powered, battery power, firewood for cooking, gas cooker etc. 
Students to brainstorm problems of batteries eg run out, need to be recharged via coal burning methods, waste metals and other materials, are very expensive, have dangerous chemicals etc.
Perhaps teacher to compare how long a battery operated toy will last versus a solar toy.
Electrical energy generation
Burning of fossil fuels eg coal (main energy of NSW) and petrol adds carbon dioxide, which has been trapped in fossils for millions of years, to the atmosphere, thus disrupting the delicate balance that keeps Earth's temperature pleasant.
Solar electricity is made using a photovoltaic cell, a distinct technology.
Most alternative energies are an attempt to replace the movement by steam to movement by another thing, such as wind, water, waves.
Geothermal, nuclear, and renewable fuels make heat to make steam without burning fossil fuels.
 
Stage 3 - Physical World
Light from a source forms shadows and can be absorbed, reflected and refracted. (ACSSU080)
Students:
§ classify materials as transparent, opaque or translucent, based on whether light passes through them, is absorbed, reflected or scattered
§ observe and describe how the absorption of light by materials and objects forms shadows, eg building shading
§ gather evidence to support their predictions about how light travels and is reflected
§ research, using secondary sources to gather information about science understandings, discoveries and/or inventions that depend on the reflection and refraction of light and how these are used to solve problems that directly affect people's lives, eg mirrors, magnifiers, spectacles and prisms (ACSHE083, ACSHE100)   
Stage 3 - Working Scientifically
Students conduct investigations by:
§ working individually and collaboratively in conducting a range of appropriate investigation methods, including fair tests, to answer questions or solve problems  
§ using suitable equipment and materials, checking observations and measurements by repeating them where appropriate
§ using equipment and materials safely, identifying potential risks (ACSIS088, ACSIS105)
§ accurately observing, measuring and recording data, using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS087, ACSIS104)  
§ using formal units and abbreviations for measuring and recording data
§ suggesting improvements to the methods used to investigate a question or solve a problem (ACSIS091, ACSIS108)
Teacher to explicitly Teach the words absorbed, reflected, refracted  and scattered, transparent, opaque, translucent
Absorbed - goes into. Students to see which size sponge absorbs the most water. Does this as a fair test eg same sponge cut into different sizes, numeracy area of sponge versus amount of water it will absorb before leaking? Water to be measured with a graduated measuring cup or similar.
Write up a scientific report with a graph sponge are versus volume of water absorbed.
Teacher to show video or perhaps builds a zoetrope, students to predict what they will see with the zoetrope.
G&T line of best fit.
Reflected; students to observe which items in the room can reflect versus absorb light. Write observations on a table eg carpet absorbs light, mirror reflects 100%.
Scattered light- light is broken up as it is absorbed or reflected making it change colour or direction.
Students to observe the way light moves though a plastic cup of water. Note it will magnify objects behind it and distort image (especially is it was corrugations in the plastic or isn't very clear)
Students to experiment with ways to change the distortion more eg add paint.
students to classify materials in the school or at home as transparent, opaque or translucent and relate this to where the material absorbs, reflects scatters or allows light to travel through it.
Shadows :
Students to watch a video to write a procedure eg
students to conclude that "shadows" are created on the fabric by light being absorbed by an object
Students to demonstrate that shadows are created when an object stops the light travelling through it.
 
Students to relate these results to materials that cast shadows eg brick walls. 
Play a game about shadows:
 
Gather evidence about how light travels and is reflected 
Students to predict what would happen if milk or white paint were added to water.
Teacher to demonstrate that when white paint (or milk) added to water in a darken room, and then you can replicate the orange colour similar to sunset/sunrise. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MtIdcgp95Zw
Students to research why the sky or ocean is blue or watch a video about this. ( light is scattered by atmosphere so it appears blue)
Students to explain why the sun looks red when there is a bush fire ( more scattering by smoke particles)
By experimenting with white paint, or milk, a clear cup and a light source such a window in a room with no lights on, over projector or torch, students to replicate sunset Perhaps take photos of model of sunset.
Draw a labelled diagram of the results of this experiment in " before" and " after" shots, and label with transparent, translucent" and " opaque"
 
Students to predict what would happen if other materials eg sand, dirt, were added to clear water then test prediction. How many teaspoons of dirt need to be added to a cup of water before you can't see though it.
Students to have a control eg cup of water and add material to " test " cup
Put cup of water over an  X drawn with black marker and measure how many teaspoons of chosen material needs to be added and stirred in before you can no longer see the X
Students to be encouraged to use a tick or other abbreviation for when "X" is visible and when it is not visible
You may want to do experiment  for report, by getting students to accurately record amount ( number of teaspoons of material till X disappears
Students to relate other experiments or situations when there is a before and after image (eg super diet tablets...)
Students to discuss what could have made their experiment more scientific.
Prediction of reflection;
Students predict what materials will reflect, then test this by observation. Tabulate the materials that reflect clearly (tick), don't reflect (cross), and partly reflect (?)
Students to brainstorm where reflection is used on roads by society eg reflecting road tiles, reflective paint in signs, reflective mirrors on sharp bends mirrors, rear view mirrors, silver behind head lights
Students to test hypothesis: aluminium foil will reflect more light that white paper, test by looking in.
EXT - how could you use two foil mirrors to read writing (student need to make a reflection of a reflection) allow students to use trial and error until they get the writing the right way round. How many foil mirrors can they reflect through and still read it?
Play game to compare materials based on light transferring qualities. http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks2/science/materials/material_properties/play/
Inventions that depend on reflection and refraction
Refraction is the bending of light.
Students to put a pencil in a cup of water and note that the pencil looks bent.
Students to use a magnet on a "fishing" rod to try to catch iron- fish (or laminate fish with an iron paperclip) to show that fish don't look like they are where they really are. ( ie light is refracted by the water)
Magnifying glasses also refract light
Teacher demo to show refraction eg
make a projector
Disappearing money with refraction
Light reflection, absorption and scattering will be used in year 9/10 when students learn that light can also be bend ( refracted) and year 11/12 light can be detracted.
Stage 3 principle explain many observational science questions eg why is the sky blue, why is a sun set red, why does a red jumper look red ( it reflects red), what happens to the other colours of light when it hits a red jumper ( they are absorbed).
Information on  properties of light
NASA- female scientist explains
 
 
Classic absorption experiment is showing that a black can will absorb more heat than a white can. For the adventurous, replicate this mystery balloon pop
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A prediction is a guess about what will happen in a specific event eg a tap will reflect, carpet will not reflect.
 
 
A hypothesis is a testable statement eg shiny, silver surfaces relict light better than dull surfaces.
 
Trial and error, or guess and check are an important method science uses to solve problems.
 
 
 
Stage 3 - Information
Systems can be used to transfer information and support communication.
Students:
§ explore how information and communication systems can be used to exchange ideas, collaborate with others, organise and present data, eg a database, spreadsheet and multimedia designs
§ communicate with others in different social and/or cultural contexts when designing an information solution, eg being a member of a collaborative online learning community
Social influences can impact on the design of information sources and technologies.
Students:
§ demonstrate appropriate and responsible use of information sources and technologies considering, where relevant, different points of view and/or stereotyping   
§ explore a range of emerging information technologies and the ways that communicating with others has changed, eg the use of video-conferencing, blogs and wikis
§ discuss issues of safety and privacy of personal information when communicating, selecting and using information sources and technologies  
Teacher explains that modern materials and electricity enable the use of ICT
Students make a data base of all the electrical items that use power points, use batteries, are rechargeable etc using excel or similar
Students contribute to a safe online forum ?????
 students discuss how to use ICT safely
students demonstrate safe ICT use
Students research the mining of coal to see opposing views available on the web
Students relate that some sources of information are more reliable than others.
Teacher shows a YouTube video that is fake (eg using mobile phones to pop popcorn. teacher may test the hypothesis in the video, )
student use critical thinking to analyse signs the trick is faked eg wires, same equipment used every time
Students suggest movies that are faked eg harry potter flying on a broomstick, perhaps watch how a movie is made using green screen
Students to discuss safety eg not registering for site when you are underage, not giving out any personal info etc
 
Students should be trained to use ICT safely

 

cross -curricula
Evaluation
Many students fail to appreciate that technology and use of electricity is a very recent phenomena. Research into the way people lived before electricity may be incorporated into HSIE
 

 


 

living world  |  Stage 3

 

Summary
Duration
This unit looks at the features that living things have that help them survive. This leads to adaptation in stage 4 and evolution in stage 5.
experiments focus on native plants and birds typical of the local Cronulla areas
Term 2
7 weeks 4 days

 

Unit overview
vocabulary
 
structure, features, behaviour, plant, growth, physical conditions, impact, adaptations, environment, built environment, survival, living things, sustainable, design, renewable, the control
Outcomes
Assessment overview
Science K‑10
  ST3‑10LW describes how structural features and other adaptations of living things help them to survive in their environment
  ST3‑11LW describes some physical conditions of the environment and how these affect the growth and survival of living things
  ST3‑14BE describes systems in built environments and how social and environmental factors influence their design
  ST3‑4WS investigates by posing questions, including testable questions, making predictions and gathering data to draw evidence-based conclusions and develop explanations
Year 7; students will investigate body systems and report on a research issue. They will also classify living things using scientific keys

 

Content
Teaching, learning and assessment
Resources
Stage 3 - Living World
Living things have structural features and adaptations that help them to survive in their environment. (ACSSU043)
Students:
§ observe and describe the structural features of some native Australian animals and plants
§ present ideas and explanations about how the structural features and behaviour of some plants and animals help them to survive in their environment, eg shiny surfaces of leaves on sand dune plants and nocturnal behaviour in some animals  
§ research the conditions needed for a particular plant to grow and survive in its environment, eg an indoor plant, plants in deserts, drought-resistant wheat or salt-tolerant plants
The growth and survival of living things are affected by the physical conditions of their environment. (ACSSU094)
Stage 3 - Working Scientifically
Students plan investigations by:
§ with guidance, planning appropriate investigation methods to test predictions, answer questions or solve problems including surveys, fieldwork, research and fair tests (ACSIS086, ACSIS103, ACSHE081, ACSHE098)
§ deciding which variable should be changed and measured in fair tests while keeping everything else the same (ACSIS087, ACSIS104)
§ collaboratively and individually selecting suitable methods for gathering data and information first-hand and from reliable secondary sources   
Students conduct investigations by:
§ working individually and collaboratively in conducting a range of appropriate investigation methods, including fair tests, to answer questions or solve problems  
§ accurately observing, measuring and recording data, using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS087, ACSIS104)  
§ using formal units and abbreviations for measuring and recording data
§ suggesting improvements to the methods used to investigate a question or solve a problem (ACSIS091, ACSIS108)
Students process and analyse data and information by:
§ constructing and using a range of representations, including tables, graphs (column, picture, line and divided bar graphs) and labelled diagrams  
§ using numerical techniques to analyse data and information, including calculating the means and percentages of small sets of data
§ drawing conclusions and providing explanations based on data and information gathered first-hand or from secondary sources
§ comparing gathered data with predictions, and using as evidence in developing explanations of events and phenomena (ACSIS218, ACSIS221, ACSHE081, ACSHE098)
§ reflecting on their gathered evidence in relation to:
the process used to gather, process and analyse their data and information
their own prior knowledge as well as accepted scientific explanations
their own and others' conclusions
Observe and describe: Draw pictures of native plants eg small dry fruit and flowers
relate to dry weather and possible drought conditions
draw Banksia nut and relate that it opens after bush fire,
Test this by burning Banksia nuts in a bin with newspaper.
Students to brain storm how to do this safely
Count number of seeds you get out of a burnt nut versus and unburnt nut, do column graph
Compare the features of native birds versus birds from other countries eg peacock, kiwi.
extension ; mangroves strategies which allow them to survive in water logged and salty conditions
Features allow them to survive:
write up report, making conclusions about how this adaptation help it survive in Australian environment
Research what happens if national parks are not allowed to burn, ie the plants die of old age and not replaced due to no new seed.
research what characteristics make a plant able to survive bush fire.
using photos and technology, label features in plaint or similar that help that bird to survive eg flying wings, colour, sharp beak, claws, camouflage colour, building a nest in a tree, or on the ground and why that's a useful adaptation sometimes, bower bird behaviour
Note weed/feral species and relate that their features allow them to survive in new environment eg rusa deer are adapted to Indonesia but are able to find similar environment a similar environment in Sydney Royal National park and in the absence of predators have become established.
Students to relate how the features of one introduced living thing eg deer, enable it to survive in Australia eg grass eating, too big for our predators (birds, snakes) to kill and eat .....
Research one plant eg mangrove plant- swamp, gum tree, bush fire etc
Teacher to ask; why don't gum trees grow on the beach?
 Possible experiments related to features of native plants:
These experiments have one variable which is changed, one variable which is measured and results which are reliable because they are repeated at least 10 times then averaged ( ie they are reliable) and accurate because they are close to the right value ie measured with equipment, and using millimetres.
When measuring, encourage students to report accurately and point out answers ending in 5 or 0 are just as likely as any other number, so don't round off!
That Banksia seeds wings make them float further.
Control =  wings taken off Banksia seed versus seeds with wings ( seeds can be obtained by burning a banksias cone for a few seconds till the pods open )
That more acacia seeds germinate when they have been soaked in boiling water for an hour ( compare soaked and unsoaked seeds)
That bigger winged seeds float further ( Hakea seed versus Banksia seed)
That chemicals come out of acacia seeds that aren't present in other seeds ( compare acacia seeds to popcorn or similar)
 
Structural features are adaptations, which allow them to survive in the environment.
Stage 4 will look at adaptations of living things and stage 5 will look at how these adaptations are acquired through evolution
Their features allow all living things from bacteria to dinosaurs to humans to survive in their current environment. As environments change, they either change or become extinct.
Information on the deer: http://adrf.com.au/content/view/35/79/
"the control" is the before in a comparison style investigation
In stage, 4 students will learn that the control is a repeat of the experiment without the independent variable ie "Wings will make the seed float further" so no wings is the control. Measurements of how far the seed floats are repeated to make test reliable ie repetition = reliability (both start with R), accurate = how close to the correct answer, An archer who is accurate is close to the target.
To expand, a reliable archer might hit the top left of the target every time, this doesn't make him an accurate archer.
Stage 3 - Living World
Students:
§ identify some physical conditions of a local environment, eg temperature, slope, wind speed, amount of light and water
§ make predictions about how changing the physical conditions of the environment impacts on the growth and survival of living things, eg different amounts of light or water on plant growth or the effect of different temperatures on the growth of yeast or bread mould   
§ use gathered data to develop explanations about how changing the physical conditions of the environment affects the growth and survival of living things   
Physical conditions:
Map local environment noting sunny areas, wet areas, and rough sketch.
Make predictions about changing physical conditions: Look at impacts of housing developments in local area on local plants and animals. Eg, count number of native plants and animals in natural area versus number of natives in student's playground.
Students could count gum trees in natural area versus school area, perhaps using Google earth.
Collect data numerically
Explain how having a turfed playground affects the plants and therefore the animals native to that area.
research what the area looked like during aboriginal management of that area, compared to now to relate that a lack of habitat results in the animal and plants not being about to survive.
adaptations that allow some living things to survive eg weeds survive in very damaged conditions, Asia minor birds able to survive in damaged environments
 
Use gathered data to explain;
Why don't we find animals such as koalas  and kangaroos in schools, ie they are not able to survive in schools due to poor environment for them, that their features don't allow them to get enough food etc
Compare to birds, which are able to nest off the ground, fly away etc.
 
Stage 3 - Built Environments
Systems in built environments are designed to meet the needs of people.
Students:
§ identify elements that work together as a system to serve and support built environments and how they are designed to meet the needs of people, eg transport systems that provide access for people to get to work or systems that provide electricity to sites
§ draw a plan of, or model, a built environment that includes a range of systems to meet the needs and wants of a specific group of users, eg shade for a playground
Social and environmental factors influence the design of built environments.
Students:
§ consider ways that the design or use of places and spaces have changed over time and the social and/or environmental factors that have influenced these changes, eg changes in the design and use of a library due to technological developments or the design of buildings after an earthquake   
§ generate and develop ideas about how built environments might be designed and constructed in the future to incorporate sustainable environmental practices, eg the use of recycled materials, natural lighting and solar energy   
§ develop designs and solutions to meet specific social or environmental needs of users, eg an energy-efficient building or high-traffic airport terminal/train station
Built environments: meet the needs of people not native plants and animals
use Google earth to map school
Identify environmentally sustainable features of school eg bins, shade, solar panels, water tanks etc
Design a more environmentally friendly school, eg better water management, waste water to veggie patch etc
Experiment: Does soapy water kill vegetable plants.
Have 2 plants (or 2 groups of plants) - tomato, potato, sunflower growing in a sunny spot outside. Make students wash hands after craft, before lunch in a bucket of soapy water and add the same amount of soapy water to one plant and clean water to other plant. Observe whether both plants survive ( it's OK to use grey water ) or soap kills plant (so soap damages environment)
To be more scientific measure the height of 2 groups of 10 plants, taking average to write a report
Students to make a terrarium with a PET bottle and have a living thing in it such as moss, grass seeds (lawn seed or bird food), insects such as silk worms if you have a supply of mulberry leaves,
 
Equipment - a bucket to collect water. Remember to keep variables such as amount of water the same. Put plants in a sunny spot that ensures plants will grow, or perhaps mark one plant in veggie patch as experiment As long as both plants receive same volume of water at  same time, rain, general watering etc can be ignored as it was constant ie the same for both.
 
year 7 idea;
Accuracy - how close to correct measurements your results are. Using an mm ruler is more accurate than using cm ruler.
reliability ; how likely these results are to be right- repeating make results more reliable
R for repeated, R for reliable
In stage 4 10 trials are recommended, though by stage 5 students should say at least 20, and scientists may do hundreds of trials
There is a local supplier of silk worms in Sylvania look on gum tree, or pet stores will have them as food. Crickets, woody cockroaches, mealworms as available as live food and good for student to research environment needed to keep them.

 

cross-curricula
Evaluation
Links with HSIE on sustainability
 

 


 


 

Summary
Duration
Using technology to study science
Term 2
1 week

 

Unit overview
Vocabulary
 
analyse, graph, data, the control, reliable, accurate, discrete data, column, picture graph, percentage, continuous data, line graph, line of best fit, tabulate

 

Outcomes
Assessment overview
Science K‑10
  ST3‑1VA shows interest in and enthusiasm for science and technology, responding to their curiosity, questions and perceived needs, wants and opportunities
  ST3‑2VA demonstrates a willingness to engage responsibly with local, national and global issues relevant to their lives, and to shaping sustainable futures
  ST3‑4WS investigates by posing questions, including testable questions, making predictions and gathering data to draw evidence-based conclusions and develop explanations
  ST3‑5WT plans and implements a design process, selecting a range of tools, equipment, materials and techniques to produce solutions that address the design criteria and identified constraints
Students able to tabulate and graph graphs a variety of ways, choosing appropriate graphs for different data.

 

Content
Teaching, learning and assessment
Resources
Stage 3 - Working Scientifically
Students process and analyse data and information by:
§ constructing and using a range of representations, including tables, graphs (column, picture, line and divided bar graphs) and labelled diagrams  
§ using numerical techniques to analyse data and information, including calculating the means and percentages of small sets of data
§ drawing conclusions and providing explanations based on data and information gathered first-hand or from secondary sources
§ comparing gathered data with predictions, and using as evidence in developing explanations of events and phenomena (ACSIS218, ACSIS221, ACSHE081, ACSHE098)
Stage 3 - Working Technologically
Students generate and develop ideas by:
§ selecting and using creative thinking techniques, including mind-mapping, brainstorming, sketching and modelling
§ selecting and using research techniques appropriate to the task
§ selecting and using techniques for documenting and communicating design ideas to others, eg drawings, plans, flow charts, storyboarding, modelling and presentations, using digital technologies    
Students explore and define a task by:
§ exploring needs for, or opportunities to undertake, the task
§ identifying the users' needs and wants using techniques, eg observations, surveys, interviews and market research
§ planning the process considering constraints where relevant, eg time, finance, resources and expertise
Students to plan an experiment, using change, measure, same to check their plan
Use a table to collect data and graph data as
Does honey attract more ants than sugar?
What different types (species) of ants are attracted to different foods eg meat, honey, rotting meat.
Use magnifier glass to sketch different species, observing details
Does the day temperature effect the number of ants that will be attracted to honey in the playground
Does having students in the playground effect the number of birds in the playground.
What species of birds visit the playground after lunch
Hypothesis; 50 % of birds to visit the school are black. 
Students to predict answer
students to brainstorm what types birds mainly arrive and test hypothesis
Write a procedure with numbered steps.
Including the step "Tabulate results" will allow teacher to teach the meaning of the word tabulate.
use research to draw a variety of graphs used to make conclusions
Conduct research to try to explain observed conclusion eg types of food available, natural habitats and food means that more carnivores visit the school
Repeat the experiments more than once, by having 10 groups of three you can take the mean (average) the result and get results that are more reliable.
Use percentages to analyse results, allowing you do make a divided bar graph
Using apps to identify birds means you are more accurate than if you just guessed eg all black birds are crows ( they need to be properly identified to be accurate)
Collect data to get a line graph:
The temperature in a tree increases as the time of heating by the sun increases.
Hang 10 thermometers in the tree and record the temperature every hour (or half hour) over the day on a sunny day.
Graph your group's data.
Take the mean of the data from all 10 groups.
Make a line graph
G&T make a line of best fit.
apps that identify Australian species are available free of charge
Students are to do their own planning so teacher can evaluate whether the main ideas of planning a fair test are demonstrated
Technology like magnifying glasses, thermometers, and apps help scientists.
Data, which is a percentage, is therefore out a 100, so a divided bar graph is an appropriate graph.
Picture graphs are appropriate for this data, especially if using computers where a miniature bird of each species could be used.
Column graphs are used when data is discrete ie not able to be written as a decimal.
The number of birds is discrete, while the temperature of the playground could be recorded as a decimal (even if your thermometer isn't that accurate) so a line graph is appropriate. 
Line of best fit-
A line graph should be drawn as a line graph, as tiny errors in the data caused by imperfect measuring equipment and investigation conditions are thus evened out.
Using of repetition and averaging does also even this out.
Primary schools teachers should encourage the use of a line of best fit, as "dot to dot" style lines graphs are less sophisticated than a line of best fit. Whilst "dot to dot" in acceptable at this stage, some teacher may introduce line of best  fit
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

cross curricula
Evaluation
Maths - using means (averages) and percentages, tabulating, graphing with column, picture and divided bar graph.
 

 


 

material world  |  Stage 3

 

Summary
Duration
This unit leads to high school chemistry, by looking  at changes (physical and chemical  reactions)
Term 3
8 weeks

 

Unit overview
Vocabulary
 
solid, liquid, gas, change, material, reversible, irreversible, purpose, design, mass, melting, freezing, evaporation, dissolving, burning, rusting, solidify, temperature, state of matter

 

Outcomes
Assessment overview
Science K‑10
  ST3‑12MW identifies the observable properties of solids, liquids and gases, and that changes made to materials are reversible or irreversible
  ST3‑13MW describes how the properties of materials determine their use for specific purposes
  ST3‑4WS investigates by posing questions, including testable questions, making predictions and gathering data to draw evidence-based conclusions and develop explanations
  ST3‑5WT plans and implements a design process, selecting a range of tools, equipment, materials and techniques to produce solutions that address the design criteria and identified constraints
  ST3‑16P describes systems used to produce or manufacture products, and the social and environmental influences on product design
year 7 will student separation techniques such as evaporation, distillation, magnetism etc/ they will also go into particle theory

 

Content
Teaching, learning and assessment
Resources
Stage 3 - Material World
Solids, liquids, and gases have different observable properties and behave in different ways. (ACSSU077)
Students:
§ observe and compare the differences in the properties and behaviour of solids and liquids, eg shape and ability to flow
§ demonstrate that air has mass and takes up space, eg in an inflated basketball, bubbles, balloons and beaten egg white
Stage 3 - Working Scientifically
Students plan investigations by:
§ with guidance, planning appropriate investigation methods to test predictions, answer questions or solve problems including surveys, fieldwork, research and fair tests (ACSIS086, ACSIS103, ACSHE081, ACSHE098)
§ deciding which variable should be changed and measured in fair tests while keeping everything else the same (ACSIS087, ACSIS104)
§ collaboratively and individually selecting suitable methods for gathering data and information first-hand and from reliable secondary sources   
Students conduct investigations by:
§ working individually and collaboratively in conducting a range of appropriate investigation methods, including fair tests, to answer questions or solve problems  
§ using suitable equipment and materials, checking observations and measurements by repeating them where appropriate
§ using equipment and materials safely, identifying potential risks (ACSIS088, ACSIS105)
§ accurately observing, measuring and recording data, using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS087, ACSIS104)  
§ using formal units and abbreviations for measuring and recording data
§ suggesting improvements to the methods used to investigate a question or solve a problem (ACSIS091, ACSIS108)
Solids and liquids compared;
Look at various solids, which are able to change into liquids eg ice, wax, chocolate, butter.
Students to experiment to compare ice to water. By freezing in different novelty ice shapes students can observe that liquid take the shape of the container, but solid stay in the same shape.
Experiment: pour various liquids; water, cordial, melted wax, chocolate, into novelty try to test that any liquid can take shape of container but solid stay in the same shape.
EXT : Some solids are never liquid eg YouTube videos on dry ice, which goes from solid to liquid directly ( sublimation)
identify the state that a material is in as its " state of matter"
Eg water from a tap is in the liquid state, ice the solid state.
Relate use of the word to other statements such as
 "Why is your room in such as state?"
Air has mass and takes up space; compare empty balloon with full balloon ie air takes up space.
Thus gases such as air are matter.( and made of atoms)
Matter can be trapped in a container eg balloon or bag. Can we have a bag of light?
Test to see how much space one breath takes up by blowing up a bag eg vegetable bag.
Prove air has mass: compare weight of full balloon versus empty balloon by tying on to each end of a meter rule or long stick and putting a pivot exactly half way. If air had no mass it would balance, but in fact, the filled balloon weighs more.
Experiment to see how much closer to pivot the filled balloon has to be to balance the empty balloon.
a variation on this is balance to blown up balloons then pop one to see what happens ie one without the air is lighter
Calculate weight of air in a balloon:
Experiment or watch videos to demonstrate that on a seesaw, (teeter-totter) two equal weighs will balance at exactly the same distance, but if heavier, it needs to be balanced to do this. use a wooden ruler and weights such as 5cent pieces or toys to do this
now calculate number of balloons that will balance out a small object of known weight eg small can
Fun : demonstration air has mass by breaking a wooden ruler or similar with air
Cows Moos Softly is a mnemonic to remember the letters CMS = change measure same.
you could use bicarb instead of pop rocks and also vinegar instead of soft drink
Eg white chocolate will melt slower on the window sill than milk chocolate Change = the type of chocolate
Measure = time taken for chocolate to melt
Same= same size chocolate, same windowsill, same day, same amount of light, same temperature of chocolate originally (ie it would be cheating if one was refrigerated first) same shape (no toblerone versus cube of white), neither can be wrapped etc.
teacher may want to deliberately wrap one to test students ability to see bad experiential design
Also, note testing more than 2 kinds of chocolate becomes a problem unless the hypothesis is " the darker the chocolate the slower it will melt on the window sill"
Using the % cocoa is one way to have one variable that is changed, as allows line graphing
 
Resources and Teacher Training
Solids are like students standing on assembly- they stay fairly still and have a fixed position and shape.
Liquid are like students at lunch- they move a lot more, running past each other, but still confined to the playgrounds.
Gases are like students when the home bell goes, they go in lots of directions, move a lot more and are not confined by the playground.
The form of a material is referred as its state of matter.
This is the Kinetic Particle Theory - it explains how all things made of matter behaves, which students will learn to manipulate in year 7. Anything made of atoms is matter, and has mass and takes up space. Energy, light for example, is not matter.
 
Air is a mixture of gases.
Other Controlled variable experiment eg
The more air pressure the higher the ball will bounce. Use an air pressure gauge to measure pressure in balls (changed variable = air pressure in ball). Students could also rate the ball from 0-10 in terms of hardness. Drop balls from a set ( ie the same, a constant ) height and measure the height it bounces on the first bounce, (or the number of bounces before it stops bouncing- make sure to only measure ONE variable)
Other ideas: do boys have bigger breaths than girls do.
Fun experiment requiring trial and error: and demonstrating that air is a real thing
Look on eBay for balloon powered toy eg balloon helicopter $2 or make your own balloon powered car
 
 
Stage 3 - Material World
Changes to materials can be reversible, such as melting, freezing, evaporating; or irreversible, such as burning and rusting. (ACSSU095)
Students:
§ observe and describe some readily observable reversible changes that materials can undergo, eg by melting and then solidifying chocolate, and dissolving and retrieving salt or sugar from water
§ make and test predictions about the effect of temperature on the state of some substances, eg adding and removing heat from water  
§ observe some irreversible changes that common materials undergo to identify that the changes may result in new materials or products, eg rusting iron, burning paper, cooking a cake and making toffee
§ classify some observable changes that materials undergo as reversible or irreversible
Stage 3 - Working Scientifically
Students process and analyse data and information by:
§ constructing and using a range of representations, including tables, graphs (column, picture, line and divided bar graphs) and labelled diagrams  
§ using numerical techniques to analyse data and information, including calculating the means and percentages of small sets of data
§ drawing conclusions and providing explanations based on data and information gathered first-hand or from secondary sources
§ comparing gathered data with predictions, and using as evidence in developing explanations of events and phenomena (ACSIS218, ACSIS221, ACSHE081, ACSHE098)
reversible reactions -
melting and solidifying
melt water, cordial, wax, chocolate, and put in a mould then show that it melts and goes runny but when solid it keeps the new shape ( you may melt chocolate etc in a microwave)
students predict what they think will happen
A prediction is what you think is going to happen in a specific instance, A hypothesis is an educated general statement, - you can test it because both the measured and changed variable are named. Students should name both variables in the hypothesis.
Experiment - which kind of chocolate melts first?
Discuss how to  control variables to do a fair test eg distance of chocolate to light, size of chocolate pieces
teacher may deliberately cheat eg have 1 cm square white chocolate but whole block dark chocolate to draw a false conclusion
Experiment: test to see if different chocolates melt in the same number of seconds in a heat source eg hot windowsill, under an overhead projector.
Model solidifying by playing a game of" freeze' perhaps using words " melt" and "solidify" (stupid word for stage 3!)
of sugar will dissolve in a cup of hot water
predictions about states ( of matter) eg an ice cube will melt in 1 minute when put in a cup of tap water, water will freeze faster in a flat bowl than in a tall container.
Teacher may want to test a related hypothesis eg; water will melt faster in a metal container than a plastic container. In this experiment, freeze water in a recycled tin and a plastic cup. Students to state the variable to keep the same ( same amount of water, where containers put, type of water - sea water versus tap water, cup similar shape, same height)
Each student to make prediction about how long one or both will take.
Play game on changing ice to water eg
Make chocolate crackles by melting Copha and then mixing
dissolving
Experiment:
That more sugar will dissolve in hot water than in cold water.
Each student to make a prediction about how many teaspoons will dissolve in a cup of hot water.
Prediction;  5 teaspoons
extension; students to make a bush still to get water out of leaves- get student to predict what will happen
Brainstorm easily reversible changes and make a collage;
Experiment:
does more sugar or salt dissolve in hot water or cold water- use one cube of sugar in refrigerated and tap warm water ( best to choose 2 temperatures to compare only)
add salt to water and then make crystals ( up a string on a window sill) can you taste the salt even when dissolved
students to brainstorm times when something disappears but you can still taste or smell it eg add sugar to coffee, let perfume evaporate
Add flavouring to milk and you can taste the sugar and flavour in the mixture.
Add food dye to water and it will be the same colour
Non- reversible changes ( chemical reaction)
Survey the school for signs of rust. research how to reverse rusting
boil an egg and ask and perhaps test that putting egg in fridge will not make it raw again
Teacher may cheat eg put an egg in the fridge with an X on it and then get out another egg so students detect the lie, discuss fair test
Students to do a collage on computer of examples where you can't get back what was changed eg fireworks, petrol in car, food in stomach, burning paper, rust, corrosion on batteries
Add vinegar to bicarb soda and let dry out - do you get the powder back ???
what's the variable in the above experiment
Experiment: what makes a nail (copper coin) irreversibly change faster water or vinegar? (Alternatively, lemon juice, cola, seawater).
Constant variable kept the same sample of metal, shape of metal, amount of liquid, temperature of liquid, amount of light.
Change; water versus vinegar
Measured; amount of change in metal
Watch dye being added to bleach
to write a report with a procedure, and conclude that this is an irreversible  change
Extension - how could measure the result in numbers? % changed.
Irreversible reaction-making ricotta.
watch and repeat this irreversible reaction with vinegar
Classify
Brainstorm some changes as reversible or irreversible
Watch video eg
Add chemicals to the juice from can of beetroot eg vinegar, bicarb, soap, anti acid chemicals (eg mylanta) lemon juice
Reversible reactions are physical reactions, and are easy to get back original or you can observe the original is still there.
 solidifying is also called freezing, especially when heat is actively removed by refrigeration
Fun experiment predicts what will happen.
See the effect of use other liquids in the plate ( different types of milk, warm milk, water, oil, detergent)
Mixture is a stage 4 word, meaning the parts are only mixed not chemically changed.
Irreversible : in stage 4 students will learn about chemical reactions, in which atoms are rearranged.
To make ricotta cheese you may make junket. If you break it up with a knife and strain it, you will have made ricotta cheese. or other methods where milk proteins( curds) are changed so they separate from the ( whey)
Now you know what little Miss Muppet was eating!
Stage 3 - Material World
The properties of materials determine their use for specific purposes.
Students:
§ identify the properties of materials used in a familiar product and relate them to its use
§ explore how materials are used in innovative ways for specific purposes, eg the use of soft-fall materials in playgrounds and geo -textiles to retain water in landscaping
§ describe how scientific and technological knowledge about the properties of materials can be used to inform decisions about use for their specific purposes
§ research the reasons for and the benefits of using solid, liquid and gaseous fuels for heating  
Stage 3 - Working Scientifically
Students process and analyse data and information by:
§ drawing conclusions and providing explanations based on data and information gathered first-hand or from secondary sources
Stage 3 - Working Technologically
Students explore and define a task by:
§ exploring needs for, or opportunities to undertake, the task
§ identifying the users' needs and wants using techniques, eg observations, surveys, interviews and market research
§ developing a design brief individually and in collaboration with others
§ developing design criteria that considers, where relevant, function, aesthetics, social and environmental considerations  
§ planning the process considering constraints where relevant, eg time, finance, resources and expertise
Students generate and develop ideas by:
§ selecting and using creative thinking techniques, including mind-mapping, brainstorming, sketching and modelling
§ selecting and using research techniques appropriate to the task
§ selecting and using techniques for documenting and communicating design ideas to others, eg drawings, plans, flow charts, storyboarding, modelling and presentations, using digital technologies    
§ identifying a range of appropriate materials for the task
§ selecting and using techniques to investigate the suitability of materials
§ applying established criteria to evaluate and modify ideas
Students evaluate by:
§ identifying the strengths and limitations of the process used
§ self or peer assessing the final product by using the established design criteria
Properties of materials ;
Get a photo of a car, push bike, toy, and label the materials.
research why 5 of these was used, what material were used in the past ( eg wood, cotton)
Look at playground and suggest why specialist materials were used.
it would be ridiculous to use glass as plant mulch because ...................
Glass should be used ......... because.............
Explore materials used in innovative ways for specific purpose
Brainstorm: Imagine you are on a boat and you see someone is having trouble swimming. What would you throw them that would float? perhaps show picture of typical items that might be in a boat eg esky, Styrofoam box, plastic bag
Test the buoyancy of readily available materials to suggest a good material to make a life jacket out of.
control variable of size eg keep all materials 2 cm square, materials to use ; Styrofoam, plastic sponge, wood, plasticine, aluminium foil, paper, cardboard, bubble wrap ( recycle materials here)
Students to brainstorm to suggest what material they would make a life jacket out of.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks2/science/materials/material_properties/play/ay Play game about using materials to build a space craft
 
Research scientific knowledge about materials eg you wouldn't use something that dissolves in water
Students to sketch a design a life jacket and label its features individually. Student then collaborate with a group to improve designs and settle on a better design using ideas of several students
Students could survey parents or have a few students pretended to be sailors and be interviewed. Market research eg YouTube videos on modern life jackets.
Students to write a design brief of life jacket either as a group or individually. 
Students to design a webpage saying why their design is better than others, what they believe people need in the life jacket based on research
students could also design a webpage to market their life jacket
Fuels -Solid, liquid and gases;
Brainstorm fuels used for heating now and in the past eg coal, wood, natural gas, and burning oil.
What was whale oil used for?
What did people use before coal to heat homes?
use first person to write a story about heating your home in 1790's in Europe
research why some fuels are preferred and tabulate a summary to compare them
Brainstorm ways to heat and cook food when camping eg gas burners, firewood, and oil heaters.
Research why a few names fuels are used in a specific situation eg for camping, getting people into space, for boats etc.
experiment; buy various types/brands of fire lighter eg wood pulp, red head and etc and perhaps  which one will burn the longest
Change- type of fire lighter
Measure - time for firelighter to go out
Same - same amount of wind, on same heatproof bowl, same temperature, and same airflow.
Other possible experiments- will tea candles burn longer if they are refrigerated first.
Experiment- is oxygen needed to burn was.
Burn 2 tea candles, put on under a glass jar and leave the other in the open. The candle with limited air will die out, as fire needs oxygen. PS you will be able to see water is produced and may condense inside the jar.
Demo of fire extinguisher experiment:
Students can replicate this reaction by adding vinegar to bi card soda.
Fun experiments with common materials - diet or normal
 
Stage 3 - Products
Systems are used to produce or manufacture products.
Students:
§ investigate a system to produce or manufacture a product, eg using an assembly line to produce a food product for sale in the school canteen, or the use of robotics in manufacturing a product
§ compare the production process in a domestic setting to mass production, eg baking bread in the home to making it in a bakery
Social and environmental factors can influence the design of products.
Students:
§ research the environmental impact of an everyday product from its production through to its use and disposal, eg a PET bottle, a car or newspaper   
§ redesign a product to respond to a specific social or environmental consequence, eg redesign the packaging of a food product to reduce garbage  
Produce a product;
Compare a homemade product to factory made
eg Perhaps grow popcorn kernels  in veggie patch and use it to make another product eg popped popcorn
Use grown or purchased popcorn kernels to investigate how to pop popcorn using oil in pan on hotplate or home popcorn machine, or microwave in a bag http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fIIGCHFYO5M
watch a video on how food in made in a factory http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F8KiTS7FJR8
Compare flavour of both types.
additional/ alternative products;
Ask students why we can't make something that we can buy eg perfectly shaped biscuits. Students to make own biscuits or similar if desired.
Teacher may wish to bring in a bread maker- with yeast- and then compare to how bread made in factory - air pumped through
Compare apples to those found in processed food eg apple juice, apple pie.
Compare wastage from eating apples to eating apple pie
EXT: testing biodegradability of grown product eg apple core to that of packaging of apple pie by burying in garden for a few weeks. Be sure to label where you buried it! (scientists would label with date etc and make sure the conditions of water, heat etc was kept the same)
Students to record the amount of products in their lunches which are disposable, recyclable or reusable.- numeracy tabulating, tallying
Students to make something with a PET bottle eg terrarium, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=69hYV9ti_R8
Students investigate environmental problems of plastics and try other ideas to recycle PET bottles or similar ( see terrarium)
students may do other reuse and recycling activities eg craft with found objects, recycle paper buy making pulp ( an old food processor and a screen stretched on a frame with be very useful here)
Students to choose a product and design a product that is reusable either practical. students could also be creative a design one  in a fanciful way.eg edible food wrappers made of roll up style plastic
search methods used to reduce waste in Sydney Olympics
Please note; pop corn is a distinct variety of corn. You can purchase reliable seed easily from eBay, however why not test normal popcorn from a pack of un-popped corn in the garden?
lots of videos on YouTube abut how a particular product is made versus homemade
Choose one to purchase or grow raw materials then compare to factory method eg pop corn, bread, biscuits, donuts, tomato sauce, etc

 

Cross- curricula
Evaluation
HSIE sustainability of meeting needs, also art in designing package.
 

 


 


 

Summary
Duration
Looks at the benefits of working in groups
Term 3
1 week 4 days

 

Unit overview
Vocabulary
 
observation, conclusion, individual, collaboration, the control

 

Outcomes
Assessment overview
Science K‑10
  ST3‑4WS investigates by posing questions, including testable questions, making predictions and gathering data to draw evidence-based conclusions and develop explanations
  ST3‑15I describes how social influences impact on the design and use of information and communication systems
 

 

Content
Teaching, learning and assessment
Resources
Stage 3 - Working Scientifically
Students conduct investigations by:
§ working individually and collaboratively in conducting a range of appropriate investigation methods, including fair tests, to answer questions or solve problems  
§ using suitable equipment and materials, checking observations and measurements by repeating them where appropriate
Students to experiment with making patterns with chemicals  and sharpie pen chromatography
This is an opportunity to get students to test ideas about what will make textas run, such as water, alcohol based hand wash, soap, and nail polish remover. 
Students may do this at home with several different colures to make conclusion about what makes colours run the best.
Students to plan as a group an experiment with one variable changed eg that textas would run further with soapy water than just water, where group work is needed.
Collaboration; gives better results than the sum of the individual efforts.
Ie perhaps have half the students do task individually, while the other half are in groups. At the end, discuss the benefit of collaboration.
Students should realise that they are comparing their results to something. Scientists call this " the control"
Students to analyse experiments or claims, perhaps from YouTube, to discuss the need to keep everything the same accept the one variable you are deliberately changing.
Students to watch this experiment on YouTube and try to replicate, speculate about how  it works and perhaps test ideas
 
 
Sharpie Pen Colour Science - Sick Science! #104
Students to plan an investigate which has only one variable changed, one measured and everything else kept the same.
The control is the before in a comparison of before and after shots. A discussion should show students  realise that consumers are manipulated by fake photos to think that a particular product is effective.
Collaboration; most science is done in groups. Students may now from popular culture such Big Bang Theory TV shows that scientist work together.
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Enter your own title
Evaluation
 
 

 


 


 

Summary
Duration
This unit leads directly to year 7 study of the solar system as well as natural disasters in HSIE and later years in science.
Term 4
8 weeks

 

Unit overview
vocabulary
 
star, planet, solar system, earth, evidence, technology, scientific, change, compare, orbit, distance, year, model, revolve, revolution, scientist, night sky

 

Outcomes
Assessment overview
Science K‑10
  ST3‑8ES describes how discoveries by people from different cultures and times have contributed to advancing scientific understanding of the solar system
  ST3‑9ES explains rapid change at the Earth’s surface caused by natural events, using evidence provided by advances in technology and scientific understanding
 

 

Content
Teaching, learning and assessment
Resources
Stage 3 - Earth and Space
The Earth is part of a system of planets orbiting around a star (the sun). (ACSSU078)
Students:
§ research the key features of the planets of the solar system and compare how long each takes to orbit the sun  
§ demonstrate using models that the Earth revolves around the sun and the moon revolves around the Earth
§ research the important contributions made by people from a range of cultures and organisations, using technologies of the time, to advancing scientific understanding of the solar system such as Aryabhata, Copernicus, Galileo, CSIRO and NASA (ACSHE082, ACSHE099)    
§ describe how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples use observations of the night sky to inform decisions about some everyday activities, eg food gathering and ceremonies
Research solar system planets:
Do a poster about a planet as a group. Each group to explain the features of their planet to the class, who summarise data about orbit and other features in a table
Orbit
Hypothesis; the further the planet the bigger the orbit.
Predict: the orbit of Neptune in Earth years
research orbit and distance
Graph distance of the sun to the orbit to conclude that the bigger the distance the bigger the orbit.
Relate that that one revolution or orbit around the sun is a year ie the same stars appear at the same time every year.
G&T explain the need for a leap year and other time correction due to the Earth day and Earth year being 2 separate events that don't match up evenly.
Model Earth and moon
Use role-play to explain the Earth's motion, perhaps by drawing a sun in the centre of the playground with each students being a planet, which revolves, holding hands with another student that represents the moon.
Note the moon turns so that it is always facing the sun with the same face, but Earth moves on its axis.
Students build another model eg using worksheet to show understanding of Earth and moon motion or use Google images to find such models.
Students indicate how the sun lights up half of the Earth only and therefore that the change from day to night
Use web based technology to identify the features of the night sky in real time- lots of free apps that will identify where planets are. Discuss with students they are above us even if not visible due to Sun's intense light. students may use apps to identify planets at night ( open night or similar a good time to do this)
Planets will be seen as brighter than average star, and are best viewed on crisp winter nights.
Play game to test knowledge of Earth, moon and sun 
people's contribution:
Research a famous individual astronomers  including female astronomers and Arabic, Chinese  as a student group and present information to the class, In presentation students are to outline information and what technology was used, how this technology allowed and limited their discoveries.
Use NASA/ CSIRO website to research current goals eg getting people on Mars
write a story - my trip to Mars
Possibly relate space travel to pop culture through other curriculum areas
eg book Stow away to the moon,  1980's movie "Space camp"
Relate the observation of the Southern Cross in the Southern hemisphere as and effect of the Earth being a large sphere.
G&T discuss that constellations such as the big dipper, bear, pole star etc are not visible in the southern hemisphere ( What we call the big dipper is another constellation) Also that Orion, the hunter, is standing on his head when viewed from Australia.
aboriginal astronomy
Use web to research  eg compare the constellation of Orion ( the hunter) to the emu ( aboriginal constellation)
Research how traditional use of observations of the night sky was used to inform decisions
Compare use of seasons on European countries to seasons of Aboriginal knowledge using BOM ( bureau of meteorology) by looking at the websites info on seasons
Compare the constellations European and Arabic people saw to those Aboriginals saw, the conclude that the animals they were familiar with were the ones they saw.
Play a game of making images in the clouds to relate that constellations are just people making a pattern out of random shapes.
 
model of earth, sun  and moon; paper
apps on various planets
Year 7 will learn how the phases of the moon and seasons occur.
Hypothesis is a testable statement, prediction a specific guess
Dinosaur train " Sunset, Sunrise "
A model is used to show ideas so that ideas can be investigated, visualised and discussed.
Telescope allowed scientists such as Galileo to see Moons around Jupiter, while now we use very large telescopes in space such as Hubble to observe the edges of the universe.
 
A note on astrological constellations:
The sun's path through the sky is called the astrological belt or Zodiac. Ancient astronomers, who relied on nature more closely, thought there was something special about the stars that were in this same position at night, so they made patterns. Since the constellations were named the sun has moved in space, meaning these patterns no longer match the time according to astrology
Aboriginal astronomy
Stage 3 - Earth and Space
Sudden geological changes or extreme weather conditions can affect Earth's surface. (ACSSU096)
Students:
§ describe using examples how natural geological events cause rapid changes to the Earth's surface, eg earthquakes, volcanic eruptions or tsunamis in the Asian region or throughout the world
§ research how some discoveries or inventions have increased scientific knowledge and provided evidence about natural events that cause rapid changes at the Earth's surface
§ investigate a recent Australian example of the effect on the Earth's surface of extreme weather conditions, eg cyclones, droughts or floods
§ identify ways that advances in science and technology have assisted people to plan for and manage natural disasters to minimise their effects, eg detection systems for tsunamis, floods and bush fires
natural geological events
Watch you tube video of rapid changes due to geological events eg volcano that grew in a field etc on YouTube
watch ice age -continental drift trailer ; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TzzGPfVx32M
What does this cartoon say caused the continents to break apart?
Using videos to discuss What, do scientists think happened? Research plate tectonics. How do scientists prove this happened? By collecting research eg seismic readings, looking at trenches at the bottom of the ocean with submarines, looking at fossils and rocks on different continents under a microscope.
Discoveries and inventions;
Build a model seismometer, and use it to measure vibrations eg if table dropped 1 cm, 2 cm etc. how big is the
Imagining of the Earth by Space station, and tracking of weather systems by satellites
Relate one recent Australian example of a natural disaster in exposition text type
Plan for natural disaster
technology that measure seismic events, tsunamis, etc
How ICT is used to help after natural disasters
make your own seismometer: eg
or
background information
Technology allows us to study and plan for natural disasters eg tracking cyclones, measuring plate movement, tracking bush fires.
Look at NASA for image of the day
In addition, the hole in the Ozone layer was detected by satellite measurements of Ozone over Antarctica. This would be a good example of how sconce informs political decisions eg stop using CFC's.
 
 
 
 

 

cross - curricula
Evaluation
HSIE how natural events impact on people.
 

 


 


 

Summary
Duration
 
Term 4
2 weeks 2 days

 

Unit overview
vocabulary
 
variable, independent , dependent, constant, measure, change

 

Outcomes
Assessment overview
Science K‑10
  ST3‑4WS investigates by posing questions, including testable questions, making predictions and gathering data to draw evidence-based conclusions and develop explanations
 

 

Content
Teaching, learning and assessment
Resources
Stage 3 - Working Scientifically
Students plan investigations by:
§ deciding which variable should be changed and measured in fair tests while keeping everything else the same (ACSIS087, ACSIS104)
Students conduct investigations by:
§ using suitable equipment and materials, checking observations and measurements by repeating them where appropriate
§ accurately observing, measuring and recording data, using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS087, ACSIS104)  
§ using formal units and abbreviations for measuring and recording data
Students communicate by:
§ constructing and using a range of representations, including tables and graphs, to represent and describe observations, patterns or relationships in data including using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS090, ACSIS107)    
§ using a variety of ways to honestly and accurately communicate ideas, explanations and processes, including multi-modal texts, labelled diagrams, as well as written and oral factual texts as appropriate (ACSIS093, ACSIS110)    
Teacher makes an unlikely hypothesis eg the more children in your family the  larger your hand ( or footprint
Students to plant this investigation with an aim, hypothesis, method (written as a procedure), risks and mitigations (preferably in a table) results in a table, graph as a column graph (as number of children is discrete data) and conclusion.
Students to trace their hand when spread out on a piece of paper and accurately measure in mm with a ruler from tip of little finger to tip of thumb.
Students decide how to count children in family ie only those you are related to etc
Students put a handprint on a cm grid paper and calculate the area of the handprint.
Students put data in a table; heading number of children, hand span in cm squared.
Students to graph results using the mean for all those with 1,2,3,4 etc children in family
Students will probably find a straight, horizontal line ie no effect. However, this is a good opportunity to ask students how could you cheat eg use kindergarten children with 5 siblings or more but university students with 1 child in family.
People could also lie about how many children in their family or fake measurements.
 What is science- Brainstorm what science is in terms of experiments done
Create a collage about science or about one branch of science eg chemistry, physics, biology, geology 
Students may use YouTube to find a "faked" experiment and discuss how to prove it is fake.
Students to experiment with bubbles to see who can make the biggest. Look on sick science for inspiration and research the best bubble mixture.
Understanding science and addressing misconceptions about
Students are to demonstrate their ability to plan a fair test.
Teachers may also investigate the idea that
"Correlation doesn't equal causation"
Ie just because all the students in kindergarten have 10 toes it doesn't mean that all 10 toed students are in kindergarten. This idea is often forgotten in advertising, Where non-science is used to imply cause and effect relations that doesn't exist.

 

cross curricula
Evaluation
English- meaning of the words independent and dependent, constant, control in other contests
Maths - calculating area